Sunday, April 13, 2014

Gluathione peroxidase (GSH-Px1-GPX1) a extracellular selenoenzyme expression modulates xenobiotic metabolising enzymes.

     Glutathione peroxidase (EC protects against oxidative damage via the chemoprotective action of nitric-oxide mediated lipid peroxidation and anti oxidative defense by gluathione (GSH-Px1-GPX1) a extracellular selenoenzyme, extracellular glutathione peroxidase (E-GPx) and cellular (C-GPx) detoxifies hydroperoxides. Other antioxidant genes (AOX) as Gpx1, is located in the cytosol and in (mt) mitochondria. Epithelial antioxidative enzymes (AOEs) are activities of GSH-Px1 (gluathione peroxidase), (SOD) superoxide dismutase, and thioredoxine reductase (TXNRD1) by itself or with thioredoxin (Trx) are antioxidant enzymes. Glutaredoxin (Grx) are reduced by the oxidation of glutathione an antioxidant, (The effect of iridoid  glucosides such as oleuropein an antioxidant, can often be bound to glucose.) phenolic compound isothiocyanate sulforaphane found in olive leaf, increased cell-lysate NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) phase II activities reduction reactions, catalyzed such as by glutathione-S-transferase (GST) can catalyze the conjugation back to the the thiol group and other GPx mimics (converted into selenocysteine), to the reaction site of glutathione (GSH) and antioxidants, implying (GR) reduction reactions back to glutathione, are an evolutionary relationship between GST and GPx/glutathione system defense in oxidative stress. "Glutathione" peroxidase (Gpx) content, and glutathione reductase (GR) components compose the glutathione (GSH) system, this contains Selenocysteine (Sec), the 21st amino acid at the active GPX site (Homo sapiens chromosome 3, GRCh37 primary reference: rs644261)- TGA  => UGA (selenocysteine, which occurs at the active site of  glutathione peroxidase GPX1 is coded by UGA, isoform 1 NM_201397.1-variant 1 represents the shorter transcript that  encodes the longer isoform 1, as compared to isoform 2- NM_000581.2 variant 2); (rs1050450) is intronless and has a shorter C-terminus. They represent the cDNA as a molecular mechanism (TGA) for down-regulation of mRNA expression and transcriptional code is a regulatory switch at the translational-step delivered to the ribosome in genes similar to Glutathione peroxidase 1 (GP, Gpx1, GSHPX1): locus 3p13-q12 (§, ,). GSH-Px is an essential nutrient selenium dependent GPX, by which mRNA translational repression of selenium-binding protein (SBP1) is accomplished when GPX1 increased in human plasma, if selenium-deficient, while independent of Se values in leukocyte (White blood cells) from correspondingly damaged DNA. In fibroblast activity, GPx1 was effective through the prevention or repair of DNA damage. The reductive detoxification of peroxides in cells modulates xenobiotic metabolising enzymes via anticarcinogen supplementation, e.g. selenium-yeast  in human plasma. GPX in turn, can lead to carcinogenesis. The heterozygote has an intraerythrocytic environment (red blood cell) with the favorable higher peroxidase activities role in malarial resistance. An in-frame GCG trinucleotide repeat was homozygous for the pseudogene GPX1 Pro197Leu-like two alleles associated with 6 GCG repeats coding for a polyalanine tract. CuZn-SOD (copper/zinc-superoxide dismutase) and other oxidoreductases contribute to the cellular defenses, repair of oxidative damage to DNA. Chronic hyperglycemia (excessive blood sugar) causes oxidative stress, 'Extract silymarin and Berberine-'may' overcome insulin resistance. And for diabetes Astragalus membranaceus  can improve the protective effect, an extract from Shidagonglao roots (Mahonia fortunei)  or the effects of Berberine from the main alkaloid of Coptis chinensis  are agents for preventing sepsis and its lipopolysaccharide (LPS) complications in human microvascular endothelial cells. GPX is down-regulated and peroxiredoxin (PRX) is up-regulated. Both use thioredoxin (Gpx and Prx, suppress Trx, a cysteine-based thioredoxin-specific GPx-Txn expression.) to recharge after reducing hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) along with other cellular molecules. Also found in transcripts in ocular tissues from oxidative anterior damaged cells,  GSH-dependent recombinant human lens thioltransferase (RHLT)* being  its repair systems. GPX1 could supress staurosporine-induced late generation of ROS, corresponding to reduction in visual loss.  Its role in pathogenesis of  (inflammatory disorders of blood antioxidant enzyme system) as an autoimmune disease background, appears to be the hydroperoxide metabolism in diverse pathogens*, an enzyme by single administration streptozotocin  (60 mg/kg) of negative implication, oxidative damage or antioxidant status when examined in contrast as metabolic syndrome through the GPX down-regulation are comparable, with reduced-enzyme-activity to the T allele of the GPx-1 genetic leucine/proline polymorphism at codon 198  approximately 70% for pro197 and 30% for leu197 named Pro198Leu (rs1050450). The leucine-containing allele was less responsive to GPx-1 enzyme activity. Thioltransferase (TTase) with GPx the dethiolating enzyme, thiol* catalysis glutaredoxin thioltransferase (Grx) content and activity to the thiol status produced by the oxidation of glutathione: a seleno-organic compound ebselen  (2-phenyl-1,2-benzisoselenazol-3(2H)-one) catalyzed in vitro, has been reported to '« mimic » development of small-molecule selenium compounds' ('synthetic antioxidant' GPX)  required for, a diphenyl diselenide PhSe group 'in the catalytic activities' is introduced by reaction (a monocyte-derived soluble protein (M-DSP/Gpx1) with 5-LO, (5-lipoxygenase ) activity this 'recovered (M-DSP)-GPx inactivation'. In which Serum Malondialdehyde (MDA) a marker (oxidative activity) generated from, reactive oxygen species (ROS) is thought to cause DNA damage with various antioxidants usually homeostatically controlled by endogenous superoxide dismutase (SOD), as a by-product and the oxygen-sensor neuroglobin (Nb), GSHPx reactive neurons or in brief neuronal damage (apoptosis) after ischemia. Antioxidant enzymes such as Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) and a 21-kD protein (involved in neuroprotection) GPx1 both in the free radical chain, protects neurons and Microglial cells. Microglial cells are, sensitive to small changes from Reactive oxygen species (ROS), free radical scavenging enzymes-mediated apoptosis. Neuronal loss and deteriorating CNS function: is linked to the pentose phosphate shunt, the (PPP) pentose phosphate pathway, has a relatively low content of enzymatic antioxidants, in a higher cellular ROS level to oxidative stress. A candidate (SePP1) selenoprotein (P-plasma) or  genetic variations homologous to GPX1. Microsomal (reconstituted fraction) glutathione transferase-1 (hGSTP1) decreased cytotoxicity ( cartilage degradation and regeneration [Leucas aspera] to mitochondria damage, directed to citrulline- containing proteins) by effects of hydrogen peroxide 'H(2)O(2), which causes lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the (ER) endoplasmic reticulum. In which LPO product Malondialdehyde and other Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances - TBARS - are formed as a byproduct, when the effects of GPX1 ( glutathione peroxidase 1)' is measured, the effects of Centella asiatica  extract detoxifies. Antioxidants and detoxication agents as antigenotoxic* agents (isoflavones via dietary intake) were also observed as cytogenetic end-points* of carcinogenesis. Over-expression could drain the  reduced glutathione ( hepatic and GSH dependent enzymes), cellular glutathione (GSH) levels, GSH acts as a feedback rate-limiting inhibitor of its synthesizing enzyme GCL (gamma-glutamyl-cysteine synthetase) activity,  Diosgenin  is a useful Marker degradation-compound of Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) against oxidation. The compound buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) inhibits the first step of glutathione synthesis, concerning the mechanism of GSH depletion. Gpx suppresses (thioredoxin) Trx - expression, which augments Anti-clastogenic (mutagenic agents), potential DNA-binding (heritable multigenerational/evolutionary tolerance), in a cDNA open reading frame (ORF) GPx1 is a small pericentric-inversion, incorporating the co-translational selenocysteine which may be unique to the insertion sequence elements.

      gpx1Biological Assembly GPx-1 tetrameric structure with an altered carcinogen metabolism and reduce oxygen tension to explain the anti-carcinogenic effects, the redox donor status (Figure 2) of one oxygen atom limited to only two regions may carry missense variant (rasmol_php_C and _D) a reaction incorporated into the overall tetrameric structures instability potentially in humans through modulation of biosynthetic and genetically modified GSH enzymes binding the selenocysteine insertion sequence elements. The specific activity of the enzyme Sec suggest how the molecular pathway might work, as the glutathione pathway may influence the enzyme Sec reaction site incorporation sequence in the 3'-untranslated region UTR of glutathione (GSH) may further reveal a signaling pathway that is activated. The differing and interacting roles of GPX1 and (Sec.) Selenocysteine Synthase [doi: 10.2210/rcsb_pdb/mom_2008_8] both vectorsgpx1together with glutathione (HUMAN GLUTATHIONE TRANSFERASE (HGST) PDB ID: 1LJR ligand component GSH: C10 H17 N3 O6 S, molecules colored: aquamarine) did; activates two multiple signaling pathways in one of the Gpx1 variants 1 or 2 nucleotide, the nonsense codon, UGA has both, related to the antioxidative pathway vectors together PDB ID: 1gp1 (2-AMINO-3-SELENINO-PROPIONIC ACID: ALANINE  molecule colored: purple), is located near the selenocysteine insertion sequence element PDB ID: 2F8A (rainbow colored: ribbons) mutant of  GPX1. Interrogation of data based on experimentally determined models are limited but revealed network structures that dynamically conveyed information from the antioxidant enzymes that share a common pathway considered most important in the selenocysteine synthesis pathway from the information suggested, and they implicate at least one selenoprotein (GPx-1) in the process.

Monday, December 30, 2013

G6PD, Exon 12 is an exonic splicing silencer containing/substituted define codon regions involved in the G6PD mRNA¹

G6PD (EC glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase [§§; , ], situated at Xq28 locus-coding region is the rate-limiting enzyme, of the (PPP) pentose phosphate pathway. G6PD deficiency  and its  X-linked gene mutations exons 2-13 (160 different mutations) are the most common inborn error of metabolism, in human red blood cell (RBC) enzymopathy, among humans. G6PD is divided into 12 segments and involves an exonic splicing enhancer (ESE) in exon 12 with 13exons and an intron present 5' UTR, proximal to the 5' bkp-breakpoint region. Intron comparisons from the second to the thirteenth exons of G6PD gene, 3′ UTR towards the 3' end of the gene to exon 1 located in 5' UTR G6PD is a region of deleted alleles (ASO-PCR) or G-6-PD the many population genetics variants/wild-type (160 different mutations and  300 G6PD variants) assuming that, at exon2 (2,3-BPG* levels) are hypothesized that G6PD partly 'overlaps' the IKBKG gene confined to the blood. The subunit (G6PD), consists of the biochemical-characteristics of 531 amino acids. This enzyme is the only process in mature red cells for NADPH-generation it involves oxidation of glucose as a » hexose « ( xenobiotic compounds) pathway ('naturally found in D-* and the unusual L- Monosaccharide forms or between 2,3-BPG*) pentose and hexose phosphates, an alternative to glycolysis, converts glucose in which ATP is produced' from the conversion of glucose-6-phosphate into ribulose 5-phosphate in liver cytosol in which a residue in the dimer interface (@ 37° C) structural G6PD is a NADP+ dependent. At the tetramer interface an Apoenzyme (PDB:2BH9), that stimulates G6PD to produce (reversible enzyme transketolase (TK) presence is necessary) more NADPH. Hemolytic crises or dysregulated NADPH oxidase located in the 3' dependent 5' UTR G6PD in humans determines the response, in which G6PD deficiency is prevalent with development of  chronic hemolytic «« anemia (CNSHA-HNSHA) associated with food-induced or a exogenous-agent and drug-induced º' ª hemolytic crises which led to the discovery of G6PD deficiency. Sulfatase  (STS, EC catalyzes Phenyl-Piracetam [] it also stacks well  and involves the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) pathway in the employed doses in related induction of certain enzyme (Glucose 6PD) synthesizing activities (glycolysis) five metabolite levels of  insulin signal transduction. These include, Sulforaphane  or broccoli-sprout extracts increased cell-lysate NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) phase II activities (Tanshinone IIA⊕), administered to cells and  in human supplementation studies, were found to be in balance with green tea extract (GTE), (EGCG) epigallocatechin-3-gallate   to generate detoxifying reactions to hepatotoxicity (can be prevented by amalika, Emblica officinalis   which supports the chemopreventive action of the silymarin extract Silibinin , of the milk thistle) preventing nitric oxide-mediated lipid peroxidation (LPO) and antioxidant defense system (GSH) glutathione ( GSH-Px and GR) depletion, via an antioxidant response element (ARE ⊕) mechanism-based inhibitor, element (NRF2) regulates (ARE)-regulated genes. A lack of NQO1 protein predisposes cells to benzene toxicity and to various forms of leukemias and toward therapeutic modulation (Acetylcysteine  and acetaminophen) of pulmonary oxygen toxicity. G6PD-deficient variants is the result of  various enzymopathies (but not GPI-chronic hemolysis), that glucuronidated-bilirubin values (UGT1A1 genotype) tended to parallel, (CNSHA) hyperbilirubinemia with hemolytic anemias, single amino acid substitutions resulting in 'mutation of variants'. Or to inherited³ and acquired physiologic changes in red cell enzyme G6PD deficiency leading to favism ( an A- variant reaches the polymorphism level the commonest a Mediterranean form, other alleles A, A+, the primordial human type B cell and normal B+ and a rare B- phenotype are neutral. Malaria-infected human red cells possess at least two pathways (in a dimer -- tetramer equilibrium) where carbonic anhydrase (CA) isoenzymes (allozymes are variants often neutral)  the native structure may serve different roles [malaria resistance] in the G6PD-deficient erythrocyte) and transmitted biochemical poly(A) characteristics (58 different -missense-mutations account for 97, poly(A) -substitutions-towards mutation of variants) divided into 5 classes of energy metabolism {chart} enzymes. Where GSH represents red cell enzymes involved in glycolysis, enolase (ENO), phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK), phosphofructokinase (PFK  that phosphorylates fructose 6-phosphate (PHI)),  hexokinase (HK), aldolase (ALD), and pyruvate kinase (PK)) activity. From class 1--chronic variants with administration of 8-azaguanine to class IV--increased enzyme activity. NADP-linked enzymes, malic enzyme (ME, EC malic dehydrogenase (MDH) that catalyzes  (NAD-ME) by the chemical reaction to NADP-ME and ATP:citrate lyase (ACL) and (IDH)-isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP-ICD) channeled NADPH into the fatty acid biosynthesis influences carbohydrate metabolism and partly account for stimulated nucleotide synthesis. Poly(A) RNA  by carnitine- palmitoyl (CPT) and acyl (ACO) mRNA, or HMG-CoA oxidase donating activities in inhibition of meiotic maturation, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) was also measured in the forming DNA adducts. The metabolism of xylitol remains intact to complete the NADPH cycle.  The G6PD gene is X-linked, G6PD synthesis leading to G6PD deficiencies which occurs in the oocyte where X-inactivation ( Xq13-XIST; 314670) large deletions or a loss-of-function mutation does not occur or might be lethal, had affected the red cell and white cell series differently, in the mouse presumably the polymorphisms of hemoglobin are on the X chromosome in man, according to hybrid cell studies of a number of domesticated species.

  Exon 12 is an exonic splicing silencer¹ containing other-(exons II, III-IV, V, VI-VII, VIII, IX, X, and XI-XIII)-spliced exons regions and an exonic splicing enhancer (ESE) in exon 12. Using the G6PD model, Exon 12, may define 12 base pairs, or two DNA base substitutions in the deamano-NADP (EC utilization. g6pd
A regulatory element within exon 12 controls splicing efficiency and the rate of intron removal. The UGT1A1 gene and the exon 12 of G6PD gene and the polymorphisms of UGT1A1 two DNA base substitutions C1 and C2 for example Gly71Arg from Arg to His are the mutational activities (dimer pink PDB: rasmol_php SNP: L235F, Figs. 1-2 and 3) of serine-arginine-rich (SR), proteins located in exon 12 of the G6PD gene.

g6pd The most common mutations are: 1376 G-->T substitution abnormality (C1) and 1388 G-->A (G6PD Kaiping) abnormality (C2) is A-->G in exon2, both in exon 12 binding to the C-rich motifs (ESE) blocked binding of  the serine-arginine-rich splicing factor 3 (SRSF3) but not SRSF4, PDB-2I2Y.
g6pd Where G6PD partly 'overlaps' the IKBKG gene PDB: 2JVX-blue-cartoon located in  the ribbon with the ESE-red-exon (XII) 12. The G6PD gene is 18 kb long divided into 12 segments ranging in size from 12 base pairs to 236 bp and interacts with elements in the beta-globin HBB common polymorphism site C1311T/IVS-II promoter are more common forms of the protein hemoglobin in the beta-globin HBB derived from the 3'-end of intron 7 is one of the 2 types of subunits in human red cell (RBC) G6PD. An ratio between heterozygote and hemizygote in males and between hetero and homozygote in females of cellular components evident from the state of G6PD activity modified by the rate of  (GdX PMID: 8786131, PDB:2BH9  a deletion variant of G6PD PMID-17637841) intron removal , shows that an intron present on the 5' UTR (located on Fig. A, the end of blue cartoon situated near the broken blue strand) of G6PD the first intron of the G6PD genome isozymes can be observed, 'GdA and GdB'³ can be bound by NADP by a direct source of ROS effects of high glucose, inhibition of PKA decreased ROS can use a direct repeat-3 (DR3) vitamin D response element liganded vitamin D receptor.

  • .....five metabolite levels of insulin signal transduction. []
  • Monday, September 09, 2013

    Intra- and interchromosomal interactions of point mutations occurring in the vicinity of the normal 5-and 3 ends via low and high O(2)-affinities on the beta-globin complex.

    Beta-globin (HBB) locus: 11p15.4  [§§; , -(HbS)] intra- and interchromosomal interactions with element in the beta-globin HBB is one of the 2 types of an asymmetric purine : pyrimidine sequences in beta-thalassemia patients (Hydroxyurea) and normal (nonthalassemic) individuals from the standard neutralmodel, to any one or more of 200 different mutations (unstable free globin chain subunits), a heterotetramer subunits assembly composed oftwo α-hemoglobin chains and two β-hemoglobin chains. In adult (Hb) hemoglobin, the IVS-2-intron“‘ promoter a coregulator of the GATA1 can serve a similar function as NF-E2 here; chromatinized minichromosome associations in erythroid cells. These data indicate (CTCF-CCCTC binding factor, interactions affects spatial distances) observations that favor EKLF’s red cell (RBC) activators erythroid specificity.  A self-organizing process, proposed role activates an adjacent promoter as both (human fetal (gamma)-to adult (beta)-globin) are important, however not sufficient (basal) stabilizing interactions,  -both were in cis and in trans distinct from alpha-globin mRNA, the 2 types of polypeptide chains interrupted by 2 intervening sequences the so-called** “switch“* region (that is, gamma—-beta -the average zeta potential, of externalized phosphatidylserine minimal for zeta-globin HBZ  dissociation constants (fast or slow* moving), to an embryonic alpha-like hemoglobin),.  Gene-proximal acting cis-regulatory DNA elements (chromatin) are maintained that contain informative mutations ‘one’ on the 3-prime side of the beta-globin gene ‘and a leftward’ rate of neutral mutation (in the 5-prime direction) the centromere (beta-globin within the chromatin domain) which contains a ‘hotspot‘ (mutations causing diseases at HRAS1, D11S at one or more 11p15.5 loci in the HBB region from D11S and IGF2: INS are systems found to be dependent on EKLF ) for recombination in the HBB gene region 3-prime to the beta-globin gene (β-thal) mutations (led to DAPI lentiviral vectors (LVs) particles expression-cassette detection: genetic diagnosis (PGD) Preimplantation. And targeted integration of the adeno-associated virus (AAV).) at 5-prime splice sites (A gamma-) globin (HBG1) are held to be responsible for human genetic disease of fetal ‘Aγ and Gγ’ hemoglobin (HPFH/beta o-tha the BCL11A variant is associated with the same variable HbF) by (tagging with GFP) a single initial deletion followed by spread of the mutation, naturally occurring allele-(Hardy-Weinberg principle),  locus with two alleles denoted, and a second abnormal allele of an HBB mutation (e.g.,  the sickle-cell haemoglobin gene Hb S, a naturally occurring mutant Hb C, β-thalassemia), with subsequent crossovers between the 5-and 3-prime and gene conversion and the creation of 2 others (e.g., Comparison‘s of the normal 5-and 3 ends, the processive region 3′ to the 3′ UTR messenger mRNP complexes ribonucleoprotein breakpoint via mutations or HS deletions (β-globin HS5 or 3′HS1) that contributes to the abnormal expression, or as RNA stability, maturation and transcriptional termination) for recombination (crossing-over or gene conversion) both in cis and in trans intra- and interchromosomal interactions of point mutations occurring in the vicinity of the beta-globin complex,  in cis to the gene mutations, were physically intact. SATB1 takes part in affecting the HBB higher order chromatin structure Matrix attachment regions (MARs) within the locus control region (LCR located at the 5′ end, flanked by AAV),  the HS2 and 3′HS1 active chromatin hub (ACH), remote 5-prime element genes (a member of the HMGB-2 high-mobility group protein 2 family) in cis to the deletion a single initial deletion is the beta zero type of  a coexisting thalassemia component and if so, if it is α-thalassemia or Beta (gamma-beta-Thalassaemia and (SCD-Hemoglobin) Hb SS anemia, sickle cell disease) and malaria  has some protective effect from increased risk of G6PD deficiency, with beta-globin co-inheritance a fetal adult gene as a cofactor involving the first non-coding near the 5-prime end of 3 exons  plus a single pseudogene termed psi beta 1 ( epsilon, beta and gamma are complementary to the structure of genes is coincidental of site mutants that are turned on and off ( H3 acetylation-(H4/R3* in the R state having T/R** low and high O(2)-affinities)-K4 demethylation) the mechanism is more complex as development proceeds) the Dominant Control Region (DCR) and introns“‘ 1-5 both single nucleotide“‘ substitutions of the beta-globin gene to the deletion ‘in cis‘ a region designated LCRB, locus control region. (INS) the insulin gene was also mapped to this same region.

    (1)  the "hinge region" of the alpha 1 beta 2 interface PMID: 1567857 were partitioned into components of ( PDB:1J7Y_colored in reds is Hb-alpha ) SNP PDB:1IRD HBA1 and 2 structure rearrangement,  the interface from the mutation site is site (B) about protein sequence 4L7Y-B alpha and D-beta: Resultsare for rs33930165 on Reference Sequence: NP_000509.1 [PMID: 22028795] attainment number P68871 verified by refinement of the a entire  molecule was confined to residues at the central cavity close to the 2,3-DPG found in the NP_000509.1 hemoglobin (PDB: 4L7Y) subunit beta. 1J7Y_Reds Hb-alpha,_Blues Hb-beta. With The effect of mutagenesis on O(2), CO,                   and NO binding to mutants 1J7Y HBB.H116R_D test Disease GeneHBB  protein/NP_000509.1structure arrangement. The alpha (HBA) and beta (HBB) loci determine the structure resolution analysis reported here implies...  the structure of genes is
    coincidental of site mutants that are turned on and off ( H3 acetylation-(H4/R3* in the R state having T/R** low and high O(2)-affinities)-K4demethylation) the mechanism is  more complex as development proceeds) e.g.  not present in the final mature HBB gene product.


    (2)  Behaviour of a natural haemoglobin and a mutant variant in the central cavity close to the 2,3-diphosphoglycerate pocket  4L7Y-D a band migrating in the Hb F_ a solvation band-position-PDB: rasmol_php (DiseaseE6K_33930165_F_[solvent- is nonbonded spheres on 4L7Y-D Hb-beta Red fig. (1)) and its reactions with 2,3-DPG and inositol hexaphosphate-PMID: 6526653: accounts for the reduced oxygen affinity of haemoglobin;  by the oppositely charged side-chains residue that project into or are missing in the heme pocket, and result in a thalassemic and/or hemolytic -like phenotype the result of decreased alpha 1 beta 1 interactions.
    HBB Network visualized with Cytoscape. The inverse of the inverse not inferable from Figure (4) overlaps the hinge region for exon selection 3'5'duplications. pubmed/21269460 [#35]


     (3) 4L7Y-B inhibits the rate of ligand binding HIS'147 the native imidazole side chain is 4L7Y-D modification at each site is a function of the position of these 2 hemoglobin alpha and beta introns the electrostatic attraction or repulsion by the oppositely charged side-chains therefore the efficiencies of intron 1, PMID: 6599969 and intron 2, PMID: 16184579 are unaffected residue near the 3' end (Blue color) (4L7Y_B/B/LEU'3/CA) of the intron on a mechanism that measures the distance, the first intron might facilitate splicing (aligned as B-D, B-D) of the second intron (Orange) 4L7Y and desease HBB locus gene in which intron 1 PMID: 18266765 accommodates the 5' end (Orange). Introns are not present in the final HBB gene product mature RNA with SNP: rs33949930,                   amplified from exon (Blue) 1 + 2 (PMID: 8226093) of the beta-globin gene: NG_000007.3(a neutral mutation [ SNP: rs33949930                   Position 70599]). Present in SNP to nucleotide allele T.
    (4)  Correlated inversely. The intron is linked both in the intron-exon sequence and nearer the (Blue) 3' end (an adaptation to endurance PMID: 16990440 ) of the intron upstream from the 3' terminus to the 3'-side of the beta-globin gene PMID: 478302 of the intron (Orange) on 4L7Y-B beta-globin gene should remain active together with all other (PMID: 11559912 alleles) forms of the same HBB gene multiallelic loci  PMID: 15315794 involved in beta-thalassemia along with the unrecognized allelism found in  PDB:1IRD among a new neutral mutation. V2E, A, G, L, SNP 33949930 (hydrophobic interaction decreased; hbb hbb )  the single nucleotide polymorphisms NP_000509. The remaining 95% of the SNPs for prediction in which a variant could be detected, would have been sufficient in these cartoons, however may be misleading.  These results suggest that e.g. the introns (PMID: 11860449) or the entire Hb-beta locus may be  missing in beta(0) or be impeded ( O(2)-affinities) in Hb SS anemia beta-thalassemia and if so, α-thalassemia or Beta (gamma-beta-Thalassaemia and (Sickle Cell SCD-Hemoglobin)  Hb SS anemia, sickle cell disease.

    Saturday, June 08, 2013

    A DNA-binding protein GATA1 with a biological unit FOG1 Zinc finger Protein molecule is 'synergistic' to the region of the X chromosome which occurred at a exome splice site X-linked involving the GATA-type zinc finger domain.

    The human ERYF1 gene (summary) NF-E1 DNA-binding protein GATA1, locus Xp11.23 [§§] containing 2 'finger' motifs referred to as ERYF1 of an erythroid-specific gene. The cDNA for the human ERYF1 gene is almost identical to that of chicken and mouse GATA1 gene consisting of 2 zinc finger' type motifs its activator domain contains the binding sites for protein GATA1 and the CACCC (HS2)^ region. FOG is specific to this complex corresponding cDNA and interacts with element in the beta-globin IVS2 promoter from hemoglobin protein subunit promoters (alpha-chain gene‡, gamma, epsilon^ and  (embryonic), a switch from fetal to adult haemoglobin -or- relative to the T to C substitution of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH), implications for fetal hemoglobin - HbF``) distinct for erythroid (INHBA) and megakaryocyte differentiation, in vertabrate though, the N- and C-terminal thirds of the human protein.  Friend of GATA-1, FOG1; ZFPM1, zinc finger protein region a coregulator of the GATA1 associations facilitates a chromatin  locus control region-(LCR) modifying proximity fetal to adult (gamma) to beta globin including the erythroid (EKLF krüpple-like) factor DNAse1^ histone  hypersensative site (HS)^ locus (LCR) GATA1 establishes, facilitates interactions with immunoprecipitation, cross-regulatory roles reduced histone, acetylation and antagonism (EKLF-FlI-1) mechanisms. PU.1 - of the Ets family is 'synergistic' to the major basic protein, (MBP) handles bistability in the erythroid-'myeloid switch « directed by PU.1,' influenced DNA binding and is  involved with MZF-1 (myeloid zinc finger 1), it interacts with the 'C-terminal zinc finger « (CF)' of GATA1. A bipotential function in multiple contexts (erythroid versus megakaryocytic myeloid cells, GATA1 switches myeloid cell fate into eosinophils)° as two multi-protein complexes when segregated into two types (factor P-TEFb) one of the characteristics of (TAL-1, T-cell acute-) leukemic (SCL) stem cells is both types in circulating blood, for both the downregulation of GATA-1 and with the upregulation of GATA-2 (3q21)° that CD34␠ has the transcription capacity observed in immature hematopoietic progenitor stem cells, specific regions of each (Sequencing of FOG1 with GATA1 and GATA2), requires intact DNA-binding domains.  The C-terminal zinc finger (CF) basic tail shares, in an antagonistic fashion 'mutations' in exon 2‡ (-GATA1s is a shorter GATA1 isoform (sf) found in DS (Down syndrome) a transient leukemia (TL)-AMKL) that lacks the transactivation'" domain, in cis-acting GATA element, identification requires intact long forms (lf) of NF-E1 DNA-binding domain. Two novel zinc-finger domains demonstrate that the NFE1 gene cDNA-binding protein is assigned the human locus located in Xp11.23, required for normal megakaryocytic and erythroid development. A mutation in the FOG1-GATA1 N-terminal zinc finger (N-finger of leukemic cell (Igs)-immunoglobulins) or lacking the N-terminal activation the binding of Fog1 and the N-finger in the DNA face of Fog1, with non X-linked associations (16q22-24) if different clinical entities linking to X-linked (X is any amino acid, substitution in the DNA-binding (Nf) region) thrombocytopenia in males-(XLTT*'-GATA1) with anemia low platelet levels traces discernable steps as embryos with a defect in forming erythroid burst-forming units BFU-E ☞ (summary - of all DNA that is transcribed which occurred at a exome splice site), to Minimal residual disease MRD - (cancer, "preleukemia" - myeloproliferative disorder (TMD), myeloid leukaemia-AML, SCL° and megakaryocytic AMKL) the GATA1-HS2-modified vector allowed remission in blood component and heme (Protoporphyrinogen) at the seventh GATA site in exon 1*'/intron-7° as a cofactor involving 6 non-coding exons and transactivation by USF1 and GATA1. A DNA Cytosine mechanism ara-c (Arabinofuranosylcytosine) short (sf) and (lf) long forms is used to kill these megakaryocytic cancer cells; clarifies that GATA-1 controls genes that manipulate the cell cycle and apoptotic cell death underlying normal (PI3K) and pathologic (PU.1) erythropoiesis - 'differentiation' is (FKBP12) lacking basal expression'" in contrast to Bcl when Bcl-X(L) is cleaved by caspases. Anti-apoptotic Hsp70 protects GATA-1 during the switchingª of the erythroleukemia␠ cells that fail to complete maturation, proteolysis undergoing cell death in both the megakaryocytic and erythroid cells, established that phospholipase C (PLC)ª is involved in the signalling pathway (PI3K)/Akt equally expressed 'as' a probable negative FOG regulator, interacts with the PU.1 related Ets domain of  glycoprotein (GP)(1) VI*' by expressing thrombopoietin activation of platelets in megakaryocytic cell lines, expressing both Fli-1 and GATA-1. A weak loss of aspartate in the amino-N-terminal zinc finger (Nf) loop GATA1's three base substitution mutations results in incomplete megakaryocyte/platelet maturation as assessed by the DNA demethylating agent 5-azacytidine, activity in the presence of ara-c which occurred at a exome splice site. GATA1 appears to interact with RNA-mediated basal expression against these pathways, associated protein or mammalian targets clarified that the basal transcription apparatus with transcription factors`` appears to interact with an HS2 region mutated in its GATA motif -GATA1s a shorter GATA1 isoform.  

    sequence [AT]GATA[AG] upper left 4 Angstroms of PDB 1GAT in this 4 Angstrom PDB 3VD6 r
    Figure 1: PDB 1y0j-a  (MMDB ID: 31470; Mus musculus A). superimposed on -3vd6 4 Angstrons ogf DNA, six finger Znf DNA potential ('X is any amino acid, substitution') to  co-ordinate C2H2 znf-1y0j-B (Protein chain B, MMDB ID: 31470), and the original structure of DNA_GATA1_HUMAN PDB: 1Y0J_uniprot/P15976 ProteinModelPortal P15976. / PDB: _3vd6; Names: GATA1 :ERYF1, GF1 with the consensus seqence [AT]GATA[AG] upper left DNA fragment seen in SPNA1  DNA binding  an essential determinant of specific GATA 1 Fig.2 binding, wraps around into the minor groove seen as the lower RNA representing PDB 1GAT in this single PDB 3VD6 rendering with PDB: 1YOJ- element-A DNA-binding protein GATA1 RNA Mus musculus eg. the red tail is the assumed Adjacent GATA DNA binding of PDB: 3DFV (Structure|id=PIRSF003027) Figure 2: 4 Angstroms of PDB 1GAT in this 4 Angstrom PDB 3VD6 rendering of 1YOJ-A RNA, modifyed to complete Fig.1. both are manually defined selected to provide The two zinc fingers functionality that contains 2 GATA-type zinc fingers (See; Figure 3: FOG1_B Zinc finger Protein (MMDB ID: 31470) has an absence of the PDB: 1YOJ- element- A DNA-binding protein GATA1 RNA thereby The two (Znf) fingers are functionally distinct bridging two separate DNA fragments (Structure|ids=PIRSF003027).

    gata1 biological unit ara-C (Arabinofuranosylcytosine) Cytarabine (CID_6253; SDF File (.sdf)) = ara-c (MMDB ID: 23600 PDB ID: 1P5Z)
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    Figure 3: This incorporates PDB 1YOJ_A_B the Sructural basis of GATA1_A erythroid trascription factor and FOG1_B Zinc finger Protein (MMDB ID: 31470; Mus musculus A- Drosophila melanogaster-B) interactions with Human components of  Complexed With a molecue biological unit ara-C (Arabinofuranosylcytosine) Cytarabine (CID_6253; SDF File (.sdf)) = ara-c (MMDB ID: 23600 PDB ID: 1P5Z) short (sf) and (lf) long forms  2 'finger' motifs of GATA 1 (lf) and FOG (sf) with  (FKBP12) basal expression PDB 2FAP_component A represented as the ligand surface partially framing the FOG heterodimer prevents formation of DNA component PDB: 1GAT-cDNA when lacking basal expression. This apparatus appears to interact with an HS2 region mutated in its GATA motif.
    Zinc fingers as protein recognition motifs: structural basis for the GATA-1/Friend of GATA interaction

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    Mol Cell Biol. 2005 Feb;25(4):1215-27.
    GATA1 function, a paradigm for transcription factors in hematopoiesis.
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